freq-10q_20210331.htm

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, DC 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2021

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from                             to                            

Commission File Number: 001-39062

 

FREQUENCY THERAPEUTICS, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

47-2324450

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

19 Presidential Way, 2nd Floor

Woburn, MA

01801

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

 

(866) 389-1970

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code 

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share

 

FREQ

 

The Nasdaq Global Select Market

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes      No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).     Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).     Yes      No  

As of May 6, 2021, the registrant had 34,219,155 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, outstanding.

 

 

 

 


 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

 

Forward-Looking Statements

2

 

Risk Factors Summary

4

PART I.

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

5

Item 1.

Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

5

 

Consolidated Balance Sheets

5

 

Consolidated Statements of Operations

6

 

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss

7

 

Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)

8

 

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

9

 

Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements

10

Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

21

Item 3.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

34

Item 4.

Controls and Procedures

34

PART II.

OTHER INFORMATION

35

Item 1.

Legal Proceedings

35

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

35

Item 2.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

79

Item 3.

Defaults Upon Senior Securities

79

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

79

Item 5.

Other Information

79

Item 6.

Exhibits

80

Signatures

81

 

 

 

 


 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, or Quarterly Report, contains forward-looking statements. We intend such forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Quarterly Report, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, business strategy, product candidates, clinical development plans and expectations, including, without limitation, planned commencements of clinical studies, patient enrollment expectations, expected release of clinical trial results and data, and expected completion dates, potential regulatory submissions, prospective products, product approvals, research and development costs, timing and likelihood of success, and plans and objectives of management for future operations and results, are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “could,” “intend,” “target,” “project,” “contemplate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. The forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report are only predictions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Quarterly Report and are subject to a number of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements, including the risks, uncertainties and assumptions described under the sections in this Quarterly Report titled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” These forward-looking statements are subject to numerous risks, including, without limitation, the following:

 

the initiation, timing, progress and results of our preclinical and clinical trials and research and development of programs, including our ongoing Phase 1b and Phase 2a clinical trials and any planned additional Phase 2 clinical trials or Phase 3 clinical trials for the treatment of hearing loss and our program to develop a product candidate for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, or MS;

 

the continued impact of the novel coronavirus, COVID-19, on our ongoing and planned clinical trials, our research and development activities and our business and financial markets;

 

our ability to continue to develop our progenitor cell activation, or PCA, platform and identify additional product candidates;

 

our ability to successfully complete clinical trials of any product candidate and obtain regulatory approval for it;

 

the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals;

 

the commercialization, marketing and manufacture of any product candidate, if approved;

 

the pricing and reimbursement of any product candidate, if approved;

 

the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of any products for which we receive regulatory approval;

 

the implementation of our strategic plans for our business, product candidates, and technology;

 

the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our product candidates, PCA platform, and technology;

 

estimates of our expenses, future revenues, capital requirements, and our need for additional financing;

 

our ability to maintain and establish collaborations, including our License and Collaboration Agreement with Astellas Pharma Inc.;

 

our financial performance and the sufficiency of our financial resources; and

 

developments relating to our competitors and our industry, including the impact of government regulation.

2


 

Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified and some of which are beyond our control, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report will prove to be accurate. Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein, whether as a result of any new information, future events, changed circumstances, or otherwise.

You should read this Quarterly Report and the documents that we reference in this Quarterly Report completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3


 

RISK FACTORS SUMMARY

 

Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those described in Part II Item 1A. “Risk Factors” in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. You should carefully consider these risks and uncertainties when investing in our common stock. The principal risks and uncertainties affecting our business include the following:

 

 

We are heavily dependent on the success of FX-322, our lead product candidate for the treatment of hearing loss, which is still under clinical development. If FX-322 does not receive regulatory approval or is not successfully commercialized, our business will be materially adversely harmed;

 

 

We utilize our PCA platform to develop product candidates that are designed to activate progenitor cells, which is a new approach to therapeutic intervention and, as a result, successful development, approval, and commercialization of our product candidates, including FX-322, is uncertain;

 

 

Clinical trials are expensive, time consuming, and difficult to design and implement, and involve an uncertain outcome. The results of preclinical studies and early clinical trials are not always predictive of future results. Our interim Phase 2a results, for example, showed that four weekly injections in subjects with mild to moderately severe SNHL did not demonstrate improvements in hearing measures versus placebo. Any product candidate that we advance into clinical trials may not achieve favorable results in later clinical trials, if any, or receive marketing approval;

 

 

The regulatory approval processes of the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities are lengthy, time consuming, and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for FX-322 or any other product candidates, our business will be substantially harmed;

 

 

We may not be successful in our efforts to identify additional product candidates. Due to our limited resources and access to capital, we must prioritize development of certain product candidates, the choice of which may prove to be wrong and adversely affect our business;

 

 

If we fail to comply with our obligations in our intellectual property licenses and funding arrangements with third parties, or otherwise experience disruptions to our business relationships with our licensors, we could lose intellectual property rights that are important to our business;

 

 

We will require additional capital to fund our operations, and if we fail to obtain necessary financing, we may not be able to complete the development and commercialization of FX-322 and additional product candidates;  

 

 

We face significant competition from biotechnology, pharmaceutical, and medical device companies and our operating results will suffer if we fail to compete effectively;

 

 

If we are unable to establish sales and marketing capabilities either on our own or in collaboration with third parties, we may not be successful in commercializing any product candidate we develop, if approved; and

 

 

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused and could continue to cause disruptions to our business, including our preclinical studies, clinical trials and operations and could adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.

4


PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements

Frequency Therapeutics, Inc.

 

Consolidated Balance Sheets

(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

March 31, 2021

 

 

December 31, 2020

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

169,227

 

 

$

220,341

 

Short-term marketable securities

 

 

25,682

 

 

 

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

5,168

 

 

 

4,723

 

Total current assets

 

 

200,077

 

 

 

225,064

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

7,024

 

 

 

7,287

 

Right of use assets

 

 

32,587

 

 

 

30,551

 

Restricted cash

 

 

1,823

 

 

 

1,820

 

Total assets

 

$

241,511

 

 

$

264,722

 

Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

5,452

 

 

$

5,506

 

Accrued expenses

 

 

2,753

 

 

 

6,663

 

Deferred revenue

 

 

9,417

 

 

 

14,068

 

Lease liabilities

 

 

1,296

 

 

 

397

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

18,918

 

 

 

26,634

 

Lease liabilities, net of current portion

 

 

30,186

 

 

 

30,597

 

Term loan

 

 

15,000

 

 

 

15,000

 

Total liabilities

 

 

64,104

 

 

 

72,231

 

Stockholders’ equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred stock, $0.001 par value; 10,000,000 shares authorized, no shares issued or

   outstanding at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock, $0.001 par value; 200,000,000 shares authorized,

   34,216,186 and 33,964,000 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2021

   and December 31, 2020, respectively

 

 

34

 

 

 

34

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

293,137

 

 

 

287,829

 

Accumulated other comprehensive income

 

 

10

 

 

 

27

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(115,774

)

 

 

(95,399

)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

 

177,407

 

 

 

192,491

 

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 

$

241,511

 

 

$

264,722

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

See accompanying notes.

 

5


 

Frequency Therapeutics, Inc.

 

Consolidated Statements of Operations

(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)

(unaudited)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

March 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Revenue

 

$

4,651

 

 

$

7,264

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

15,106

 

 

 

6,670

 

General and administrative

 

 

9,744

 

 

 

6,249

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

24,850

 

 

 

12,919

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(20,199

)

 

 

(5,655

)

Interest income

 

 

25

 

 

 

710

 

Interest (expense)

 

 

(218

)

 

 

 

Realized (loss) gain on investments

 

 

(4

)

 

 

69

 

Foreign exchange gain

 

 

21

 

 

 

1

 

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(20,375

)

 

 

(4,875

)

Income taxes

 

 

 

 

 

(38

)

Net loss

 

$

(20,375

)

 

$

(4,913

)

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders-basic

   and diluted

 

$

(0.60

)

 

$

(0.16

)

Weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding-basic

   and diluted

 

 

34,115,682

 

 

 

30,868,220

 

 

See accompanying notes.

6


Frequency Therapeutics, Inc.

 

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss

(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)

(unaudited)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

March 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Net loss

 

$

(20,375

)

 

$

(4,913

)

Other comprehensive (loss) gain:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unrealized (loss) on marketable securities

 

 

(17

)

 

 

(69

)

Total other comprehensive (loss)

 

 

(17

)

 

 

(69

)

Comprehensive loss

 

$

(20,392

)

 

$

(4,982

)

 

See accompanying notes.

 

 

7


 

Frequency Therapeutics, Inc.

 

Consolidated Statements Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)

(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

 

 

 

 

Common

shares

issued

 

 

Common

par

value

 

 

Additional

paid-in

capital

 

 

Accumulated

other

comprehensive income

 

 

Accumulated

deficit

 

 

Total

stockholders’

equity (deficit)

 

Balance, December 31, 2019

 

 

30,844,507

 

 

$

31

 

 

$

236,161

 

 

$

54

 

 

$

(68,888

)

 

$

167,358

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

2,164

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

2,164

 

Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options

 

 

164,743

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

309

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

309

 

Other comprehensive (loss)

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

(69

)

 

 

-

 

 

 

(69

)

Net loss

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

(4,913

)

 

 

(4,913

)

Balance, March 31, 2020

 

 

31,009,250

 

 

$

31

 

 

$

238,634

 

 

$

(15

)

 

$

(73,801

)

 

$

164,849

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance, December 31, 2020

 

 

33,964,000

 

 

$

34

 

 

$

287,829

 

 

$

27

 

 

$

(95,399

)

 

$

192,491

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

4,611

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

4,611

 

Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options

 

 

252,186

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

697

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

697

 

Other comprehensive (loss)

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

(17

)

 

 

-

 

 

 

(17

)

Net loss

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

(20,375

)

 

 

(20,375

)

Balance, March 31, 2021

 

 

34,216,186

 

 

$

34

 

 

$

293,137

 

 

$

10

 

 

$

(115,774

)

 

$

177,407

 

 

See accompanying notes.

 

8


 

Frequency Therapeutics, Inc.

 

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(in thousands)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

March 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Cash flows from operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(20,375

)

 

$

(4,913

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

4,611

 

 

 

2,164

 

Depreciation expense

 

 

382

 

 

 

215

 

Non-cash lease expense

 

 

286

 

 

 

75

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

(336

)

 

 

247

 

Accounts payable

 

 

(1,846

)

 

 

1,432

 

Deferred revenue

 

 

(4,651

)

 

 

(7,264

)

Lease liabilities

 

 

488

 

 

 

 

Accrued expenses

 

 

(4,033

)

 

 

(1,319

)

Net cash (used in) operating activities

 

 

(25,474

)

 

 

(9,363

)

Cash flows from investing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchases of property and equipment

 

 

(543

)

 

 

(343

)

Purchase of marketable securities

 

 

(25,666

)

 

 

 

Redemption of marketable securities

 

 

 

 

 

14,031

 

Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities

 

 

(26,209

)

 

 

13,688

 

Cash flows from financing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options

 

 

572

 

 

 

309

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

572

 

 

 

309

 

Net (decrease) increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

 

(51,111

)

 

 

4,634

 

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at beginning of period

 

 

222,161

 

 

 

200,259

 

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at end of period

 

$

171,050

 

 

$

204,893

 

Non-cash items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Right-of-use assets in exchange for lease liabilities

 

$

 

 

$

(2,163

)

Purchases of right of use asset included in accrued expenses

 

$

(106

)

 

$

 

Purchases of property and equipment and right of use asset included in accounts payable

 

$

(1,792

)

 

$

 

 

See accompanying notes

 

9


Frequency Therapeutics, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements –(continued)

(Amounts in thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

 

 

1. Organization and basis of presentation

 

Organization

Frequency Therapeutics, Inc., together with its wholly owned subsidiaries, Frequency Therapeutics, PTY, LTD, Frequency Therapeutics Securities Corporation and Frequency Therapeutics Japan KK, (the Company), headquartered in Lexington, Massachusetts, was incorporated in November 2014 as a Delaware corporation. The Frequency Therapeutics KK subsidiary was dissolved in February 2021. The Company is a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on harnessing the body’s innate biology to repair or reverse damage caused by a broad range of degenerative diseases.

Basis of presentation

The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting standards set by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). The FASB sets generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) that the Company follows to ensure its financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows are consistently reported. References to GAAP issued by the FASB in these notes to the consolidated financial statements are to the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (ASC).

Principles of consolidation

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Frequency Therapeutics, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries Frequency Therapeutics Securities Corporation, Frequency Therapeutics PTY, LTD and Frequency Therapeutics Japan KK, which was dissolved in February 2021. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated. The significant accounting policies used in preparation of these interim financial statements on Form 10-Q are consistent with those discussed in Note 2, “Summary of significant accounting policies,” in the Company’s Form 10-K.

Unaudited interim financial information

The accompanying consolidated balance sheet as of March 31, 2021 and the consolidated statements of operations, the consolidated statements of comprehensive loss and the consolidated statements of stockholders’ equity (deficit), and the consolidated statements of cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 are unaudited. The unaudited interim consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited annual consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments, which include only normal recurring adjustments, necessary for the fair statement of the Company’s financial position as of March 31, 2021, the results of its operations for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 and cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020. The financial data and other information disclosed in these notes related to the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 are also unaudited. The results for the three months ended March 31, 2021 are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2021, any other interim periods, or any future year or period. The consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2020 included herein was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements as of that date. These unaudited consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2020 included in the Company’s Form 10-K.

2. Recently adopted and issued accounting standards

 

Recently adopted accounting standards

  In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12 amending accounting guidance that simplifies the accounting for income taxes, as part of its initiative to reduce complexity in the accounting standards. The amendments eliminate certain exceptions related to the approach for intraperiod tax allocation, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities for outside basis differences. The amendments also clarify and simplify other aspects of the accounting for income taxes. The Company adopted the standard on January 1, 2021 and it did not have a significant impact on its consolidated financial statements.

10


Frequency Therapeutics, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements –(continued)

(Amounts in thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

Recently issued accounting standards

From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the FASB or other standard setting bodies and adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date. The Company is an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended (the “JOBS Act”). The JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. Thus, an emerging growth company can delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. The Company elected to avail itself of this extended transition period and, as a result, we will not be required to adopt new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for other public companies.

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. The FASB has subsequently issued amendments to ASU 2016-13, which have the same effective date and transition date. These standards require that credit losses be reported using an expected losses model rather than the incurred losses model that was previously used, and establishes additional disclosures related to credit risks. For available-for-sale debt securities with unrealized losses, this standard now requires allowances to be recorded instead of reducing the amortized cost of the investment. These standards limit the amount of credit losses to be recognized for available-for-sale debt securities to the amount by which carrying value exceeds fair value and requires the reversal of previously recognized credit losses if fair value increases. This standard will become effective for the Company on January 1, 2023. The Company is still evaluating the impact of this standard on its consolidated financial statements.

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-15, Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That is a Service Contract. This new guidance requires a customer in a cloud computing arrangement that is a service contract to follow the internal-use software guidance in ASC 350-40 to determine which implementation costs to defer and recognize as an asset. ASU 2018-15 generally aligns the guidance on recognizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal use software, which includes hosting arrangements that include an internal-use software license. This standard will become effective for the Company in annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020. The Company is still evaluating the impact of this standard on its consolidated financial statements.

3. Fair value measurements

Fair value is defined as the price that would be received upon sale of an asset or paid to transfer a liability between market participants at measurement dates. ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurement (ASC 820), establishes a three-level valuation hierarchy for instruments measured at fair value. The hierarchy is based on the transparency of inputs to the valuation of an asset or liability as of the measurement date. The hierarchy defines three levels of valuation inputs, of which the first two are considered observable and the last is considered unobservable:

 

Level 1

Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

 

Level 2

Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are either directly or indirectly observable, such as quoted market prices, interest rates and yield curves.

 

Level 3

Unobservable inputs developed using estimates or assumptions developed by the Company, which reflect those that a market participant would use in pricing the asset or liability.

To the extent that the valuation is based on models or inputs that are less observable or unobservable in the market, the determination of fair value requires more judgment. Accordingly, the degree of judgment exercised by the Company in determining fair value is greatest for instruments categorized in Level 3. A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement.

11


Frequency Therapeutics, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements –(continued)

(Amounts in thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

The Company’s financial assets are measured at fair value on a recurring basis by level within the fair value hierarchy at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 are summarized as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

March 31, 2021

 

 

 

Fair Value

 

Amortization

 

 

Unrealized

 

 

Fair Market

 

 

 

Hierarchy

 

Cost

 

 

Loss

 

 

Value

 

Money market funds

 

Level 1

 

 

101,730

 

 

 

 

 

 

101,730

 

Short-term marketable securities

 

Level 2

 

 

25,699

 

 

 

(17

)

 

 

25,682

 

 

 

 

 

$

127,429

 

 

$

(17

)

 

$

127,412

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2020

 

 

 

Fair Value

 

Amortization

 

 

Unrealized

 

 

Fair Market

 

 

 

Hierarchy

 

Cost

 

 

Gain

 

 

Value

 

Money market funds

 

Level 1

 

 

214,522

 

 

 

27

 

 

 

214,549

 

 

 

 

 

$

214,522

 

 

$

27

 

 

$

214,549

 

 

The carrying amounts reflected in the consolidated balance sheet for prepaid expenses and other current assets, accounts payable, accrued expenses, other liabilities, and term loan are shown at their historical values which approximate their fair values.

4. Property and equipment

Property and equipment include the following:

 

 

March 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Lab equipment

 

$

4,241

 

 

$

4,166

 

Furniture and office equipment

 

 

287

 

 

 

283

 

Software

 

 

290

 

 

 

291

 

Leasehold improvements

 

 

1,419

 

 

 

1,419

 

Construction in progress

 

 

4,381

 

 

 

4,340

 

Total

 

 

10,618

 

 

 

10,499

 

Accumulated depreciation

 

 

(3,594

)

 

 

(3,212

)

Property and equipment, net

 

$

7,024

 

 

$

7,287

 

 

The Company recognized $382 and $215 of depreciation expense for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

5. Accrued expenses

Accrued expenses consist of the following:

 

 

March 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Payroll and employee related expenses

 

$

1,366

 

 

$

5,062

 

Professional fees

 

 

312

 

 

 

647

 

Third-party research and development expenses

 

 

782

 

 

 

874

 

Taxes and other

 

 

293

 

 

 

80

 

Total

 

$

2,753

 

 

$

6,663

 

 

12


Frequency Therapeutics, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements –(continued)

(Amounts in thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

 

6. Debt

On December 11, 2020 (the “Closing Date”), the Company entered into a Loan and Security Agreement (the “Loan Agreement”) with a commercial bank for a term loan with a principal balance of $15,000. The Company will make monthly interest only payments through November 30, 2022. The principal balance and interest will be repaid in equal monthly installments after the interest only period and continuing through May 1, 2024 (the “Loan Maturity Date”). Advances under the Loan Agreement will bear an interest rate equal to the greater of either (i) 1.50% plus the Prime Rate (as reported in The Wall Street Journal, subject to an interest rate floor of zero) or (ii) 4.75%. The interest rate at March 31, 2021 was 4.75%, resulting in interest expense of $218 for the three months ended March 31, 2021.

The Company may prepay the advance made under the Loan Agreement in whole, at any time subject to a prepayment premium equal to: (a) 2.0% of the then-outstanding principal amount of the advance, if such prepayment occurs on or prior to the first anniversary of the Closing Date; (b) 1.0% of the then-outstanding principal amount of the advance, if such prepayment occurs after the first anniversary of the Closing Date and on or prior to the second anniversary of the Closing Date; and (c) 0.0% of the then-outstanding principal amount of the advance, if such prepayment occurs after the second anniversary of the Closing Date. The prepayment premium is waived if the borrowings under the Loan Agreement are refinanced by the bank (in its sole and absolute discretion) on or prior to the Loan Maturity Date.

The Company will pay a final payment of $150, which will occur on the earliest of: (i) the Loan Maturity Date; (ii) the date that the Company prepays all of the outstanding principal in full; (iii) the date the loan payments are accelerated due to an event of default; or (iv) the termination of the Loan Agreement. The Company is accruing the final payment as interest expense over the term of the loan. The term loan is secured by substantially all of the Company’s assets, excluding intellectual property.

 

7. Net loss per share

Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is computed using the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period and, if dilutive, the weighted-average number of potential shares of common stock. Diluted net loss per share is the same as basic net loss per share for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 since all potential shares of common stock instruments are anti-dilutive as a result of the loss for such periods.

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

March 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Numerator:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

 

$

(20,375

)

 

$

(4,913

)

Denominator:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding-

   basic and diluted

 

 

34,115,682

 

 

 

30,868,220

 

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders-

   basic and diluted

 

$

(0.60

)

 

$

(0.16

)

 

The Company excluded the following potential shares of common stock from the computation of diluted net loss per share because including them would have had an anti-dilutive effect.

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

March 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Unvested restricted common stock

 

 

2,629

 

 

 

5,600

 

Outstanding stock options

 

 

7,703,262

 

 

 

6,908,115

 

Total

 

 

7,705,891

 

 

 

6,913,715

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13


Frequency Therapeutics, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements –(continued)

(Amounts in thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

 

 

8. Stockholders’ equity

Capital stock

The Company has authorized 10,000,000 shares of $0.001 par value preferred stock and 200,000,000 shares of $0.001 par value common stock. There were no shares of preferred stock outstanding as of March 31, 2021. There were 34,216,186 and 33,964,000 shares of common stock issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. Common shares are voting, and dividends may be paid when, as and if declared by the Board of Directors.

The Company has reserved the following shares of common stock for future issuance as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020:

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Stock options outstanding

 

 

7,703,262

 

 

 

6,816,798

 

Shares available for future grant under stock option plan

 

 

1,695,833

 

 

 

1,475,923

 

 

 

 

9,399,095

 

 

 

8,292,721

 

 

Private placement

On July 20, 2020, the Company issued and sold an aggregate of 2,350,108 shares of its common stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Shares”), at a purchase price of $18.00 per share to new and existing investors in a private placement for net proceeds of $40,100 after deducting placement agent fees and offering expenses (the “Private Placement”). In connection with the Private Placement, the Company entered into a Registration Rights Agreement (the “Registration Rights Agreement”) with the investors. Pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement, the Company agreed to prepare and file a registration statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) within 60 days after the closing of the Private Placement (the “Initial Filing Date”) for purposes of registering the resale of the Shares. The Company filed a registration statement (the “Registration Statement”) to register the Shares, which was declared effective by the SEC on September 3, 2020.

9. Stock-based compensation

Stock options

The below summary includes stock option activity within the Company’s 2014 Stock Incentive Plan and 2019 Incentive Award Plan for the three months ended March 31, 2021:

 

 

Number of

shares

 

 

Weighted

average

exercise

 

 

Weighted average

remaining contractual

term

 

 

Aggregate

intrinsic

 

 

 

in Plans

 

 

price

 

 

(in years)

 

 

value

 

Outstanding as of December 31, 2020

 

 

6,816,798

 

 

$

10.11

 

 

 

8.45

 

 

$

171,415

 

Granted

 

 

1,138,650

 

 

 

37.35

 

 

 

9.81

 

 

 

 

Exercised

 

 

(252,186

)

 

 

2.76

 

 

 

7.52

 

 

$

8,957

 

Forfeited

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Outstanding as of March 31, 2021

 

 

7,703,262

 

 

$

14.38

 

 

 

8.46

 

 

$

23,824

 

Options exercisable as of March 31, 2021

 

 

3,142,596

 

 

$

6.93

 

 

 

7.94

 

 

$

15,901

 

Options unvested as of March 31, 2021

 

 

4,560,666

 

 

$

19.51

 

 

 

8.83

 

 

$

7,923

 

 

The aggregate intrinsic value of stock options is calculated as the difference between the exercise price of the stock options and the fair value of the Company’s common stock for those stock options that had exercise prices lower than the fair value of the Company’s common stock.

14


Frequency Therapeutics, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements –(continued)

(Amounts in thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

Stock option valuation

The assumptions that the Company used to determine the grant-date fair value of stock options granted to employees and directors were as follows, presented on a weighted average basis:

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

Risk-free interest rate

 

 

0.4

%

Expected term (in years)

 

 

6.0

 

Expected volatility

 

 

80.4

%

Expected dividend yield

 

 

0.0

%

 

The weighted-average grant date fair value of options granted to employees during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 was $25.50 and $16.18, respectively.

The total grant date fair value of options vested during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 was $4,284 and $1,506, respectively.

Restricted common stock

The Company issued common stock to founders, employees and advisors which was subject to vesting over four years. If any of these individuals ceased to be employed or to provide services to the Company prior to vesting, the Company had the right to repurchase any unvested Common Stock at the price paid by the holder.

A summary of the status of restricted common stock as of March 31, 2021 is presented below:

 

 

 

Number of

shares

 

 

Weighted

average fair

value

 

Unvested, December 31, 2020

 

 

3,093

 

 

$

1.75

 

Awarded

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vested

 

 

(464

)

 

 

1.75

 

Forfeited

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unvested as of March 31, 2021

 

 

2,629

 

 

$

1.75

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The total value of restricted stock awards that vested during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, based on estimated fair values of the stock underlying the restricted stock awards was $1 and $17, respectively.

Stock-based compensation

The Company recognized stock-based compensation within the accompanying consolidated statements of operations as follows:

 

 

Three Months Ended

March 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Research and development

 

$

1,529

 

 

$

970

 

General and administrative

 

 

3,082

 

 

 

1,194

 

Total

 

$

4,611

 

 

$

2,164

 

 

As of March 31, 2021, total unrecognized stock-based compensation expense relating to unvested stock options was $55,428. This amount is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 3.32 years.

15


Frequency Therapeutics, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements –(continued)

(Amounts in thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

10. Employee stock purchase plan

On September 20, 2019, the Company’s board of directors and stockholders approved and adopted the 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “ESPP”) which became effective on the date of the Company’s initial public offering of shares of its common stock. The ESPP permits participants to purchase common stock through payroll deductions of up to 15% of their eligible compensation. A total of 963,085 shares of common stock were reserved for issuance under the ESPP at March 31, 2021. The number of shares of common stock available for issuance under the ESPP will be automatically increased on the first day of each calendar year during the first ten years of the term of the ESPP, beginning with January 1, 2020 and ending with January 1, 2029, by an amount equal to 1% of the outstanding number of shares of the Company’s common stock on December 31 of the preceding calendar year or such lesser amount as determined by the Company’s board of directors. No shares have been issued under the ESPP at March 31, 2021.

11. Income taxes

The Company’s total provision is based on the United States statutory rate of 21%, increased by state taxes and reduced by a full valuation allowance on the Company’s deferred tax assets. The income tax expense for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 represents state taxes on interest income earned by the Company’s subsidiary, Frequency Therapeutics Securities Corporation, a Massachusetts Securities Corporation.

ASC 740 requires a valuation allowance to reduce the deferred tax assets reported if, based on the weight of the evidence, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. After consideration of all the evidence, both positive and negative, the Company has recorded a valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 because the Company’s management has determined that it is more likely than not that the Company will not recognize the benefits of its federal and state deferred tax assets primarily due to its cumulative loss position.

Since inception in 2014, the Company has generated cumulative federal and state net operating loss and research and development credit carryforwards for which no net tax benefit has been recorded due to uncertainty around utilizing these tax attributes within the respective carryforward periods.

12. Collaboration agreement

In July 2019, the Company entered into a License and Collaboration Agreement with Astellas (the “Astellas Agreement”), under which the Company granted Astellas an exclusive, royalty-bearing, sub-licensable, nontransferable license to certain patent rights to research, develop, manufacture, have manufactured, use, seek and secure regulatory approval for, commercialize, offer for sale, sell, have sold and import, and otherwise exploit licensed products containing both a GSK-3 inhibitor and an HDAC inhibitor, (the “Astellas Licensed Products”), including the product candidate FX-322, outside of the United States. The Company also granted Astellas a right of first negotiation and a right of last refusal if it entered into any negotiation or agreement of any kind (other than an acquisition of all of the stock or assets of the Company) with any third party under which such third party would obtain the right to develop, manufacture, or commercialize Astellas Licensed Products in the United States.

The Company has agreed to conduct Phase 2a clinical studies in the United States. Upon the completion thereof, the Company and Astellas have agreed to jointly develop the Astellas Licensed Products, including carrying out joint studies. Each party has agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to carry out development activities assigned to it under an agreed-upon development plan. Astellas has agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to obtain regulatory approval for at least one Astellas Licensed Product in sensorineural hearing loss and in age-related hearing loss, in each case, in one major Asian country and one major European country. The Company has agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to obtain regulatory approval for at least one Astellas Licensed Product in the United States. Astellas has the sole right to commercialize the Astellas Licensed Products outside of the United States, and the Company has the sole right to commercialize the Astellas Licensed Products in the United States. Astellas has agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to commercialize Astellas Licensed Products in a major Asian country and a major European country following receipt of regulatory approval in such countries.

16


Frequency Therapeutics, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements –(continued)

(Amounts in thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

The collaboration is governed by a joint steering committee (“JSC”) established under the Astellas Agreement and shall be comprised of three representatives each from the Company and Astellas. The JSC shall oversee and coordinate the overall conduct of the development, manufacture and commercialization of the Astellas Licensed Products. All decisions of JSC shall be taken through a unanimous vote with each party’s representatives collectively having one vote. Both the parties shall be responsible for carrying out the development and manufacturing activities in their defined territory in accordance with the plan as reviewed and approved in the JSC.

As consideration for the licensed rights under the Astellas Agreement, Astellas paid the Company an upfront payment of $80,000 in July 2019 and has agreed to pay potential development milestone payments up to $230,000 and commercialization milestones of up to $315,000. Specifically, the Company would receive development milestone payments of $65,000 and $25,000 upon the first dosing of a patient in a Phase 2b clinical trial for SNHL in Europe and Asia, respectively and $100,000 and $40,000 upon the first dosing of a patient in a Phase 3 clinical trial for SNHL in Europe and Asia, respectively. If the Astellas Licensed Products are successfully commercialized, the Company would be eligible for up to $315,000 in potential commercial milestone payments and also tiered royalties at rates ranging from low- to mid-teen percentages. The parties shall share equally, on a 50/50 basis, all out-of-pocket costs and joint study costs for all the joint activities conducted pursuant to the development plans or the joint manufacturing plan.

The Astellas Agreement remains in effect until the expiration of all royalty obligations. Royalties are paid on a licensed product-by-licensed product and country-by-country basis until the latest of (i) the expiration of the last valid claim in the licensed patent rights with respect to such Astellas Licensed Product in such country or (ii) a set number of years from the first commercial sale of such Astellas Licensed Product in such country. Astellas may terminate the Astellas Agreement at will upon 60 days’ written notice. Each party has the right to terminate the Astellas Agreement due to the other party’s material breach if such breach remains uncured for 90 days (or 45 days in the case of nonpayment) or if the other party becomes bankrupt.

The Astellas Agreement is a collaborative agreement that is within the scope of ASC 808. The Company analyzed the joint research and development activities to assess whether they fall within the scope of ASC 808, and will reassess this throughout the life of the arrangement based on changes in the roles and responsibilities of the parties. Based on the terms of the arrangement as outlined above, both parties are deemed to be active participants in the collaboration. Both parties are performing research and development activities in their defined territory and will be performing joint clinical studies in accordance with the development plan and the study protocol approved by the JSC. Additionally, Astellas and the Company are exposed to significant risks and rewards dependent on the commercial success of any product candidates that may result from the collaboration. As such, the collaboration arrangement is deemed to be within the scope of ASC 808.

The arrangement consists of two components; the license of IP and the research and development activities, including committee participation, to support the co-development and research plan. Under the provisions of ASC 808, the Company has determined that it will apply the guidance in ASC 606 to recognize the revenue related to the license since that component of the arrangement is more reflective of a vendor-customer relationship. The Company determined that the license and the related research and development services associated with the Phase 2a clinical study were not distinct from one another, as the license has limited value to Astellas without the performance of the research and development activities and the Phase 2a study is essential to the use of the license. As such, the Company determined that these activities should be accounted for as a single combined performance obligation.

Revenue associated with this single performance obligation is being recognized as the research and development work is performed, using an input method on the basis of research and development costs incurred to date relative to total research and development costs expected to be incurred. The transfer of control occurs over this time period and, in management’s judgment, is the best measure of progress towards satisfying the performance obligation. The Company has determined that the period of performance of the research and development services began upon the signing of the Astellas Agreement and will continue until the completion of the Phase 2a clinical trial of FX-322. The transaction price of $80,000 has been allocated to the single combined performance obligation and will be recognized over such period. Management has analyzed the progress of the Phase 2a clinical trial and has estimated the completion date of such trial and the total research and

17


Frequency Therapeutics, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements –(continued)

(Amounts in thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

development costs it expects to incur in performing the trial and is recognizing the $80,000 upfront fee as revenue over the period from July 2019 until June 30, 2021, the estimated completion date of the Phase 2a clinical trial, using the input method. The Company regularly assesses its estimates and to the extent that facts and circumstances dictate, the Company revises its estimates of total cost or completion date and accounts for such change on a prospective basis. The Company was required to pay MIT a royalty of $16,000 on the $80,000 of sublicense revenues. The $16,000 royalty was expensed in the third quarter of 2019. For a description of the MIT License Agreement, refer to Note 13.

The $80,000 upfront payment received from Astellas in July 2019 was initially recorded as deferred revenue and is being recognized as revenue according to the policy described above. In the three months ended March 31, 2021, and since entering into the Astellas Agreement, the Company recorded $4,700, and $70,600, respectively, of revenue under the Astellas Agreement based upon the application of the input method over the estimated period to completion of the Phase 2a clinical trial for FX-322. 

The potential development and regulatory milestone payments are fully constrained until the Company can conclude that achievement of the milestone is probable and that it is probable that recognition of revenue related to the milestone will not result in a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is ultimately resolved and as such these have been excluded from the transaction price. As part of its evaluation of the constraint, the Company considers numerous factors, including the fact that achievement of the milestones is outside the control of the Company and contingent upon the future success of clinical trials, the licensee’s efforts, and the receipt of regulatory approval. Any consideration related to sales-based milestones (including royalties) will be recognized when the related sales occur as these amounts have been determined to relate predominantly to the license granted to Astellas and therefore are recognized at the later of when the performance obligation is satisfied, or the related sales of licensed products occur. The Company re-evaluates the transaction price, including its estimated variable consideration included in the transaction price and all constrained amounts, at each reporting period and as uncertain events are resolved or other changes in circumstances occur, and, if necessary, adjusts its estimate of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect revenues and earnings in the period of adjustment.

The Astellas Agreement contains joint research and development activities that are not within the scope of ASC 606. The Company will recognize research and development expense related to the joint study costs for all the joint activities in future periods and reimbursements received from Astellas will be recognized as an offset to research and development expense on the consolidated statements of operations during the development period. In the three months ended March 31, 2021, the Company invoiced Astellas $324 for joint costs.

 

13. License Agreement

 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

In December 2016, the Company entered into an exclusive patent license agreement (MIT License Agreement), with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, (MIT), under which the Company received an exclusive, worldwide, royalty-bearing license to certain patent rights to develop, make, have made, use, sell, offer to sell, lease and import products (Licensed Products) and to develop and perform processes (Licensed Processes) which incorporate the licensed technology for the treatment of disease, including but not limited to the prevention and remediation of hearing loss. The Company also has the right to grant sublicenses of its rights under the MIT License Agreement.

The Company is required to use diligent efforts to develop and commercialize the Licensed Products or Processes, and to make such products or processes reasonably available to the public and to spend certain minimum amounts on research and development of Licensed Products and/or Processes each year until the first commercial sale of a Licensed Product and/or a first commercial performance of a Licensed Process. The Company is also subject to certain development obligations with regards to a first Licensed Product. The Company has satisfied certain obligations related to preclinical studies and the filing of an IND for a first Licensed Product with its development activities related to FX-322. The Company’s future development obligations are: (i) to commence a Phase II clinical trial for such Product, (ii) to commence a Phase III clinical trial for such Product within five years of the IND filing for such product within two years of the IND filing for such product, (iii) to file a New Drug Application or equivalent with the FDA or comparable European regulatory agency

18


Frequency Therapeutics, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements –(continued)

(Amounts in thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

for such Product within nine years of the IND filing for such product, and (iv) to make a first commercial sale of such Product within 11 years of the IND filing for such product. The Company also has certain development obligations for as second Licensed Product. In the event that the Company has failed to fulfill the development timeline obligation with respect to a second Licensed Product and fail to cure such breach within ninety (90) days of written notice by MIT, MIT may restrict the licensed field to the prevention and remediation of hearing loss in humans and animals. The Company does not have the right to control prosecution of the in-licensed patent applications, and its rights to enforce the in-licensed patents are subject to certain limitations.

Upon entering into the MIT License Agreement, the Company paid a $50 license fee payment and issued to MIT shares of our common stock equal to 5% of total then-outstanding capital stock. The Company is required to pay certain annual license maintenance fees which may be credited to running royalties during the same calendar year, if any, and to make potential milestone payments up to $2,900 on each Licensed Product or Licensed Process. In addition, The Company is required to pay a low single-digit royalty on Licensed Products and Licensed Processes and a low-twenties royalty on sublicense revenues. In the year ended December 31, 2019 the Company paid MIT a royalty of $16,000 related to the upfront payment received from Astellas, see Note 12.

The MIT License Agreement will remain effect until the expiration or abandonment of all issued patents and filed patent applications licensed thereunder remain in effect, unless terminated earlier. The Company has the right to terminate for any reason upon a 3-month prior written notice. MIT shall have the right to terminate if the Company ceases to carry on any business related to the MIT License Agreement. MIT may terminate the MIT License Agreement for the Company’s material breach uncured within ninety (90) days (or thirty (30) days in the case of nonpayment). MIT may also terminate the MIT License Agreement if the Company or our affiliates commence any action against MIT to declare or render any claim of the licensed patent rights invalid, unpatentable, unenforceable, or non-infringed (a patent challenge), or if our sublicensee commences such actions and the Company does not terminate such sublicense within thirty (30) days after MIT’s demand. MIT has the right to increase all payments due, instead of terminating the MIT License Agreement in the case of a patent challenge.

In May 2019, the Company entered into an amendment with MIT, updating the diligence milestones for a second Licensed Product.

 

The patents in-licensed by the Company from MIT pursuant to the MIT License claim inventions created by, among others, Dr. Langer, one of the Company’s directors. Pursuant to MIT’s policy on the ownership, distribution and commercial development of MIT technology, or the MIT Policy, inventors of intellectual property invented at MIT, including the inventors of patents licensed to the Company under the MIT License, are entitled to a portion of the net royalty income derived by MIT from such inventions, but not amounts received by MIT from the sale of common stock previously issued by the Company to MIT pursuant to the MIT License. Accordingly, pursuant to the MIT Policy, Dr. Langer is entitled to receive a portion of the amounts the Company pays to MIT under the MIT License, including the Astellas Royalty Payment and future milestone payments or royalties, if any, that the Company may receive pursuant to the Astellas Agreement. Accordingly, Dr. Langer received $1,980 from MIT under the MIT Policy during the year ended December 31, 2020. Dr. Langer did not receive any payments in the three months ended March 31, 2021.

14. Commitments and contingencies

Contract commitments

The Company has contracted with a research institution to provide research for a therapeutic drug to treat multiple sclerosis. In September 2020, the Company extended the term of this contract through December 2021. As consideration for this extension, the Company committed to total payments of $600 through December 2021.

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Frequency Therapeutics, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements –(continued)

(Amounts in thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

The Company also enters into contracts in the normal course of business with CROs, CMOs, universities, and other third parties for preclinical research studies, clinical trials and testing and manufacturing services. These contracts generally do not contain minimum purchase commitments and are cancelable by us upon prior written notice although, purchase orders for clinical materials are generally non-cancelable. Payments due upon cancellation consist only of payments for services provided or expenses incurred, including noncancelable obligations of our service providers, up to the date of cancellation or upon the completion of a manufacturing run.

Guarantees

The Company has identified the guarantees described below as disclosable, in accordance with ASC 460, Guarantees.

As permitted under Delaware law, the Company indemnifies its officers and directors for certain events or occurrences while the officer or director is, or was, serving at the Company’s request in such capacity. The maximum potential amount of future payments the Company could be required to make is unlimited; however, the Company has directors’ and officers’ insurance coverage that should limit its exposure and enable it to recover a portion of any future amounts paid.

The Company is a party to a number of agreements entered into in the ordinary course of business that contain typical provisions that obligate the Company to indemnify the other parties to such agreements upon the occurrence of certain events. Such indemnification obligations are usually in effect from the date of execution of the applicable agreement for a period equal to the applicable statute of limitations. The aggregate maximum potential future liability of the Company under such indemnification provisions is uncertain.

The Company leases office space in Lexington, Massachusetts under a ten-year noncancelable operating lease, and is exiting the Woburn, Massachusetts facility in the second quarter of 2021. The Company has standard indemnification arrangements under these leases that require it to indemnify the landlord against all costs, expenses, fines, suits, claims, demands, liabilities, and actions directly resulting from any breach, violation, or nonperformance of any covenant or condition of the lease.

As of March 31, 2021, the Company had not experienced any losses related to these indemnification obligations, and no material claims with respect thereto were outstanding. The Company does not expect significant claims related to these indemnification obligations and, consequently, concluded that the fair value of these obligations is negligible, and no related reserves have been established.

 

 

15. Subsequent events

 

The Company has evaluated subsequent events for recognition, remeasurement and disclosure purposes through May 13, 2021, the date which the consolidated financial statements were available to be issued. The identified subsequent event is as follows:

On May 13, 2021, the Company announced data from a Phase 1b study in presbycusis (age-related hearing loss). In the study, no significant treatment effect was observed with FX-322 administration compared to placebo. Results also showed a favorable safety and tolerability profile and importantly, the Phase 1b study in presbycusis confirmed that the inclusion of multiple baseline hearing tests prior to treatment mitigated the impact of potential study bias.

 

 

 

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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and with our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, or the 2020 Annual Report, including the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto contained in our 2020 Annual Report. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. You should review the section titled “Risk factors” in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described below.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on harnessing the body’s innate biology to repair or reverse damage caused by a broad range of degenerative diseases and a global leader in the science and development of medicines for inner-ear cellular regeneration and hearing restoration. Our initial focus is on advancing our lead product candidate, FX-322, through clinical studies with the goal of developing and commercializing a medicine to help millions of patients with the most common form of hearing loss and build upon the potential of regenerative therapeutics for hearing.

 

Our initial therapeutic focus is sensorineural hearing loss, or SNHL, which is the most prevalent type of hearing loss. We are developing FX-322 to treat the underlying cause of SNHL, which is the loss of hair cells. FX-322 is designed to regenerate hair cells through the activation of progenitor cells already present in the ear. In our Phase 1/2 clinical trial evaluating FX-322 in 23 patients with stable SNHL, we observed a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in key measures of hearing loss, including word recognition, or WR, and clarity of sounds, and FX-322 was observed to be well-tolerated. We commenced dosing of a Phase 2a clinical trial of FX-322 in patients with SNHL in October 2019. In September 2020, we completed enrollment of 95 patients across 16 sites in the Phase 2a clinical trial. In March 2021, we announced topline, day-90 interim data from the Phase 2a clinical trial. The results showed that four weekly injections in subjects with mild to moderately severe SNHL did not demonstrate improvements in hearing measures versus placebo. While WR scores increased across all groups, repeated weekly injections appeared to dampen the hearing benefit observed compared to other single injection-studies. The interim results also showed an unexpected apparent level of hearing benefit in the placebo group that did not occur in previous trials and exceeded well-established published standards. No treatment-related serious adverse events were observed in the study. We plan to report an analysis of the end of Phase 2a data (210 days) late in the second quarter of 2021. 

In March 2021, we announced new data from a Phase 1b clinical trial of FX-322 designed to evaluate the impact of injection conditions on tolerability. The data showed hearing improvement from a single injection of FX-322. In the multi-center, randomized study, subjects with mild to severe SNHL (n=33) were injected in one ear with FX-322 with the untreated ear as the control. Hearing function was tested over the course of 90 days following dosing. Thirty-two subjects completed the 90-day clinical assessment period and, at day 90 following dosing, 34% of these subjects achieved a 10% or greater absolute improvement in WR scores in the treated ear, which was clinically meaningful and statistically significant compared to the untreated ear (p <0.05). This included a subset of subjects that more than doubled their WR scores. The single dose had a favorable safety profile and was well tolerated.

In May 2021, we announced data from a Phase 1b clinical trial of FX-322 in presbycusis (age-related hearing loss). The double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, multicenter safety study enrolled 30 individuals aged 66-85 with age-related hearing loss. Study participants were randomized 4:1 to receive either FX-322 or placebo in one ear. Validated hearing measures, as well as safety, otologic and audiologic assessments were also evaluated in the study. By design, the study recruited subjects with no medical history of noise-induced or sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL), etiologies where FX-322 associated hearing benefits were observed in prior studies, as we continue to separately evaluate subjects with specific forms of hearing loss to better refine cohorts for future studies. While the treatment effect was not significant compared to placebo, results from the study showed a favorable safety and tolerability profile with no reported treatment-related serious adverse events.

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In November 2020 we also commenced a Phase 1b clinical trial of FX-322 in patients aged 18-65 with severe SNHL. Enrollment of up to 30 subjects remains ongoing. Severe SNHL is defined as a pure tone average deficit between 71-90 dB and many patients with this clinical profile typically would be candidates for cochlear implants. The primary objectives of the study are to assess the local and systemic safety of a single dose of FX-322 and evaluate hearing responses in a more severe adult cohort. Study participants are randomized 4:1 to receive either FX-322 or placebo in one ear. Validated measures of hearing including WR, Bamford-Kowal-Bench Speech-in-Noise (BKB-SIN) and pure tone audiometry are utilized in the study. Safety, otologic and audiologic assessments are being conducted at days 30 and 90 following administration of FX-322 or placebo. Frequency now expects to obtain topline results from this study in the second half of 2021.

We are also working to identify a product candidate for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, or MS. This program focuses on activating oligodendroglial progenitor cells in the central nervous system to repair the myelin sheath that protects axons and may have the potential to repair damage done by the disease. We established an internal research program using PCA to drive remyelination as a potential therapy for MS and have identified compounds that display promising preliminary preclinical results in an in vivo model of remyelination. Our research efforts are focused on optimizing these compounds and identifying a lead therapeutic candidate to advance into clinical trials. We have obtained worldwide licenses for intellectual property from Scripps and Cambridge Enterprise on approaches to promote remyelination of nerve fibers and are engaged in sponsoring clinical research to validate this approach at Cambridge University. 

In July 2020, we completed a private placement of our common stock to new and existing investors, or the Private Placement. In the Private Placement, we issued and sold 2,350,108 shares of our common stock at a purchase price of $18.00 per share. We received approximately $40.1 million in net proceeds, after deducting placement agent fees and other offering expenses. In connection with the Private Placement, we entered into a Registration Rights Agreement, or the Registration Rights Agreement, with the investors purchasing shares in the Private Placement. Pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement, we filed a registration statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, which was declared effective on September 3, 2020, registering the resale of the shares sold in the Private Placement.

 

Since our formation in 2014, we have devoted substantially all our resources to developing our PCA platform, conducting research and development activities, including product candidate development, recruiting skilled personnel, establishing our intellectual property portfolio, and providing general and administrative support for these operations. We have financed our operations primarily through proceeds from the sale of convertible notes, convertible preferred stock, and common stock, payments under the Astellas Agreement and loan financing.

Since our formation, we have incurred significant operating losses and have not generated any revenue from the sale of products. Our ability to generate any product revenue or product revenue sufficient to achieve profitability will depend on the successful development and eventual commercialization of one or more of our product candidates. Our net losses were $20.4 million and $26.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and year ended December 31, 2020, respectively. As of March 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $115.8 million.

We expect our operating expenses to increase substantially in connection with the expansion of our product development programs and capabilities. In addition, we expect to continue to incur significant additional costs associated with operating as a public company. We will not generate revenue from product sales unless and until we successfully complete clinical development, obtain regulatory approval for, and successfully commercialize our product candidates, or until our collaborators do so, which could result in milestone payments or royalties to us. If we obtain regulatory approval for any of our product candidates, we expect to incur significant expenses related to developing our commercialization capability to support product sales, marketing and distribution.

As a result of these anticipated expenditures, we will need additional financing to support our continuing operations. Until such time as we can generate significant revenue from product sales, if ever, we expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of public or private equity or debt financings and other sources, which may include current and new collaborations with third parties. Adequate additional financing may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. Our inability to raise capital as and when needed would have a negative impact on our financial condition and our ability to pursue our business strategy. We cannot be sure that we will ever generate sufficient revenue to achieve profitability.

Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with the development of therapeutics, we are unable to predict the timing or amount of increased expenses or when or if we will be able to achieve or maintain profitability. Even if we can generate revenue from product sales, we may not become profitable. If we fail to become profitable or are unable to sustain profitability on a continuing basis, then we may be required to raise additional capital on terms that are unfavorable to us or we may be unable to continue our operations at planned levels and be forced to reduce or terminate our operations.

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Our offices are located in states that are currently operating under a phased re-opening plan in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. As of the date of the filing of this Quarterly Report, the majority of our non-laboratory based employees continue to work from home on a rotating basis at least several days per week, while our laboratory personnel have resumed a full in-person schedule in our Lexington, MA facility. We have also taken steps consistent with the FDA’s updated industry guidance for conducting clinical trials. The COVID-19 pandemic, and actions taken to mitigate it, have had and are expected to continue to have an adverse impact on the economies and financial markets of many countries, including the geographical area in which we operate, which could adversely impact our ability to raise additional capital when needed or on acceptable terms, if at all. In addition, COVID-19 may cause significant disruptions in our business or operations, as well as the business and operations of our CMOs, CROs and other third parties with whom we conduct business. The COVID-19 pandemic may also adversely impact our clinical trials, which could impede, delay, limit or prevent the clinical development of our product candidates and ultimately lead to the delay or denial of regulatory approval of our product candidates, which would materially adversely affect our business and operations, including our ability to generate revenue.

License and collaboration agreements

Astellas Pharma Inc.

In July 2019, we entered into the Astellas Agreement with Astellas, under which we granted Astellas an exclusive, royalty-bearing, sub-licensable, nontransferable license to certain patent rights to research, develop, manufacture, have manufactured, use, seek, and secure regulatory approval for, commercialize, offer for sale, sell, have sold and import, and otherwise exploit licensed products containing both a GSK-3 inhibitor and an HDAC inhibitor, or the Astellas licensed products, including our product candidate FX-322, outside of the United States. We and Astellas have agreed to jointly develop the Astellas licensed products, including carrying out joint studies. Each party has agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to carry out development activities assigned to it under an agreed-upon development plan. Astellas has agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to obtain regulatory approval for at least one Astellas licensed product in SNHL and in age-related hearing loss, in each case in one major Asian country and one major European country. We have agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to obtain regulatory approval for at least one Astellas licensed product in the United States. Astellas has the sole right to commercialize the Astellas licensed products outside of the United States and we have the sole right to commercialize the Astellas licensed products in the United States. Astellas has agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to commercialize Astellas licensed products in a major Asian country and a major European country following receipt of regulatory approval in such countries.

As a consideration for the licensed rights under the Astellas Agreement, Astellas paid us an upfront payment of $80.0 million in July 2019 and has agreed to pay potential development milestones up to $230.0 million. Specifically, we would receive development milestone payments of $65.0 million and $25.0 million upon the first dosing of a patient in Phase 2b clinical trial for SNHL in Europe and Asia, respectively and $100.0 million and $40.0 million upon the first dosing of a patient in a Phase 3 clinical for SNHL in Europe and Asia, respectively. If the Astellas Licensed Products are successfully commercialized, we would be eligible for up to $315.0 million in potential commercial milestone payments and tiered royalties at rates ranging from low to mid-teen percentages. The parties shall share equally, on a 50/50 basis, all out-of-pocket costs and joint study costs for all the joint activities conducted pursuant to the development plans or the joint manufacturing plan. Pursuant to our Exclusive Patent License Agreement, or the MIT License, with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, we are required to pay MIT a royalty on sublicense revenues. A royalty of $16.0 million related to the $80.0 million upfront payment received from Astellas was expensed in the quarter ended September 30, 2019 and paid in November 2019. The $80.0 million upfront payment received from Astellas in July 2019 has been recorded as deferred revenue and is being recognized as revenue, using the input method, over the period in which we will be conducting Phase 2a clinical trials for FX-322. As of March 31, 2021, we have recognized $70.6 million of the $80.0 million since the agreement was executed in 2019.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

In December 2016, we entered into the MIT License, with MIT under which we received an exclusive, worldwide, royalty-bearing license to certain patent rights to develop, make, have made, use, sell, offer to sell, lease, and import products, or the MIT licensed products, and to develop and perform processes, or the MIT licensed processes, which incorporate the licensed technology for the treatment of disease, including but not limited to the prevention and remediation of hearing loss. We are required to use diligent efforts to develop and commercialize the MIT licensed products or processes, and to make such products or processes reasonably available to the public. We are also subject to certain development obligations with regards to a first MIT licensed product. We have satisfied certain obligations related to preclinical studies and the filing of an IND for a first MIT licensed product with our development activities related to FX-322. Our future development obligations are: (i) to commence a Phase II clinical trial for such product within two years of the IND filing for

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such product, (ii) to commence a Phase III clinical trial for such product within five years of the IND filing for such product, (iii) to file a New Drug Application, or NDA, or equivalent with the FDA or comparable European regulatory agency for such product within nine years of the IND filing for such product, and (iv) to make a first commercial sale of such product within 11 years of the IND filing for such product. We also have certain development obligations with regards to a second MIT licensed product.

Upon entering into the MIT License, we paid a $50 thousand license fee payment and issued shares of our common stock equal to 5% of our then-outstanding capital stock to MIT. We are required to pay certain annual license maintenance fees ranging from $30 thousand to $0.1 million per year prior to first commercial sale of a MIT licensed product and an annual license maintenance fee of $0.2 million every year afterwards, which may be credited to running royalties during the same calendar year, if any. We are also required to make potential milestone payments in an aggregate amount of up to $2.9 million on each MIT licensed product or process. In addition, we agreed to pay a low single-digit royalty on the MIT licensed products and processes and a low-twenties royalty on sub-license revenues. In the year ended December 31, 2019, we paid MIT a $16.0 million royalty on the upfront license fee received from Astellas.

Massachusetts Eye and Ear (Formerly Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary)

In February 2019, we entered into an Non-Exclusive Patent License Agreement, or the MEE License, with the Massachusetts Eye and Ear, or MEE, under which we received a non-exclusive, non-sub-licensable, worldwide, royalty-bearing license to certain patent rights to develop, make, have made, use, sell, offer to sell, lease, and import products, and to develop and perform processes that incorporate the licensed technology for the treatment or prevention of hearing loss, or the MEE licensed products. We are obligated to use diligent efforts to develop and commercialize the MEE licensed products. We are also subject to milestone timeline obligations to dose a first patient in a Phase II trial by December 31, 2020 and to dose a first patient in a Phase III trial by December 31, 2024.

Upon entering into the MEE License, we made a $20 thousand license fee payment. We are obligated to pay certain annual license maintenance fees between $5 thousand and $7.5 thousand per each MEE patent family case number included in the licensed MEE patent rights prior to first commercial sale of an MEE licensed product. We are also obligated to pay a minimum annual royalty payment of $15 thousand per each MEE patent family case number included in the licensed MEE patent rights after first commercial sale of an MEE licensed product. We are also obligated to make milestone payments up to $350 thousand on each product or process that incorporates the licensed patent rights. In addition, we have agreed to pay a low single-digit royalty on products and processes that incorporate the licensed patent rights. 

The Scripps Research Institute (California Institute for Biomedical Research)

In September 2018, we entered into a license agreement, or the CALIBR License, with the California Institute for Biomedical Research, or CALIBR, a division of Scripps, under which we received an exclusive, worldwide, royalty-bearing license to certain patent rights to make, have made, use, sell, offer to sell, and import products, or the CALIBR licensed products, which incorporate licensed technology for the treatment of MS. We have agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop, manufacture, and sell at least one CALIBR licensed product. We are also subject to certain milestone timeline obligations, which may be extended in certain circumstances as described in the CALIBR License, to: (i) submit an IND (or equivalent) for a CALIBR licensed product by the 30th month after the effective date of the CALIBR License, (ii) initiate a Phase II clinical trial (or equivalent) for a CALIBR licensed product by the fourth anniversary of the effective date of the CALIBR License, and (iii) initiate a Phase III clinical trial (or equivalent) for a CALIBR licensed product by the sixth anniversary of the effective date of the CALIBR License.

Upon entering into the CALIBR License, we made a $1.0 million license fee payment, and are required to make milestone payments in an aggregate amount of up to $26.0 million for each category of CALIBR licensed products. Category 1 is any CALIBR licensed products containing a compound that modulates any muscarinic receptor, and Category 2 is any CALIBR licensed products not included in Category 1 that could differentiate oligodendrocyte precursor cells from in vitro studies and/or are active in animal models relevant to MS. We are also required to pay a mid-single-digit royalty on CALIBR licensed products and a royalty on sub-license revenues ranging from a low-teen percentage to 50%.

 

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The Scripps Research Institute

In September 2018, we entered into a Research Funding and Option Agreement, or the Scripps option agreement, with Scripps, under which we were granted an exclusive option to acquire an exclusive, sublicensable, worldwide license under certain intellectual property related to the treatment of MS. As consideration for the Scripps option agreement, we are required to make funding payments totaling $0.7 million to Scripps to support its research activities. Scripps has agreed to use reasonable efforts to perform the research program pursuant to the Scripps option agreement.

The Scripps option agreement had a one-year term and was renewed for a second year by mutual written agreement.  We have the right to terminate by giving 90 days’ advance notice.  Scripps has the right to terminate in the event of nonpayment by us that remains uncured for 10 days.  Each party has the right to terminate in the event of the other party’s material breach that remains uncured for 60 days or if the other party becomes bankrupt.

In September 2020, we extended the term of the option agreement through the end of December 2021. As consideration for this extension, we are required to make additional funding payments of $0.6 million to Scripps through December 2021.

We have the right to terminate by giving 90 days’ advance notice. Scripps has the right to terminate in the event of nonpayment by us that remains uncured for 10 days. Each party has the right to terminate in the event of the other party’s material breach that remains uncured for 60 days or if the other party becomes bankrupt.

Cambridge Enterprise Limited

In December 2019, we entered into an Exclusive Patent License Agreement, or the Cambridge License, with Cambridge Enterprise Limited (the technology transfer arm of the University of Cambridge), or Cambridge, under which we received an exclusive, worldwide, royalty-bearing license to certain patent rights to make, have made, use, sell, offer to sell, and import products, or the Cambridge licensed products, which incorporate licensed technology for the treatment of demyelinating diseases. We also have the right to grant sublicenses under the Cambridge License. Cambridge reserves the right to use for itself (as well as the investors and the funder) and the right to grant nonexclusive licenses to other academic institutions for any academic publication, research and teaching and clinical patient care.

We have agreed to use diligent and good faith efforts to develop and commercially exploit at least one Cambridge licensed product. Upon entering into the Cambridge License, we made a $50 thousand license fee payment. We are obligated to pay an annual license fee of $50 thousand. We are also obligated to make milestone payments up to $10.5 million on each Cambridge licensed product. In addition, we have agreed to pay a low single-digit royalty on products that incorporate the licensed patent rights, subject to offset in certain circumstances.

The Cambridge License continues in effect on a country-by-country basis until the expiration or revocation, without right of further appeal, of all licensed issued patents and filed patent applications, unless terminated earlier. We have the right to terminate for any reason upon 90 days’ prior written notice. Each party has the right to terminate immediately if the other party ceases to carry on its business. Either party may also terminate the Cambridge License for material breach if such breach remains uncured for 30 days. Cambridge may also terminate the Cambridge License if we fail to diligently develop and commercially exploit at least one Cambridge licensed product or we or our affiliates or sub-licensees commence any action against Cambridge to declare or render any claim of the licensed patent rights invalid, unpatentable, unenforceable, or not infringed.

Components of our results of operations

Revenue

To date, we have not generated any revenue from product sales and do not expect to generate any revenue from product sales in the foreseeable future. In July 2019, we entered into the Astellas Agreement and received an upfront license fee payment of $80.0 million. In accordance with ASC 606, we are recognizing the $80.0 million as revenue over the period that research and development services and the Phase 2a clinical study for FX-322 are being provided using the input method. For the purpose of revenue recognition, this is the period from execution of the Astellas Agreement to, based on management’s best estimate, the estimated completion date of the Phase 2a clinical study, expected to be end of June 2021. In the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, we recognized $4.7 million and $7.3 million, respectively, of the $80.0 million upfront fee as revenue.

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Research and development expenses

Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for our research activities, including our discovery efforts and for the development of our product candidate, FX-322. These include the following:

 

salaries, benefits and other related costs, including stock-based compensation expense, for personnel engaged in research and development functions;

 

expenses incurred under agreements with third parties, including contract research organizations, or CROs, and other third parties that conduct preclinical research and development activities and clinical trials on our behalf;

 

costs to manufacture our clinical trial material for use in our preclinical studies and clinical trials;

 

costs of outside consultants, including their fees and related travel expenses;

 

costs of laboratory supplies and acquiring, developing and manufacturing preclinical study and clinical trial materials;

 

option and license payments made to third parties, including MIT, Scripps, MEEI and Cambridge, for intellectual property used in research and development activities; and

 

facility-related expenses, which include direct depreciation costs and expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities and other operating costs if specifically, identifiable to research activities.

We expense research and development costs as incurred.

We track external research and development costs, including the cost of services, outsourced research and development, clinical trials, contract manufacturing, laboratory equipment and maintenance, and certain other development costs, by product candidate when the costs are specifically identifiable to a product candidate. Internal and external costs associated with infrastructure resources, other research and development costs, facility-related costs, and depreciation and amortization that are not identifiable to a specific product candidate are included in the platform development, early-stage research, and unallocated expenses category.

 

We expect that our research and development expenses will continue to increase substantially for the foreseeable future as we continue to conduct our Phase 2a clinical trial and other clinical trials and initiate additional clinical trials for FX-322 and continue to discover and develop additional product candidates and if we are required to continue to engage additional third parties and CROs in response to the COVID-19 pandemic to advance certain projects. Product candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to increased scale, duration and the higher costs associated with later stage clinical trials.

We cannot determine with certainty the duration and costs of future clinical trials of FX-322 or any other product candidate we may develop or if, when, or to what extent we will generate revenue from the commercialization and sale of any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval. The duration, costs, and timing of clinical trials and development of FX-322 and any other product candidate we may develop will depend on a variety of factors, including:

 

the scope, rate of progress, expense and results of clinical trials of FX-322, as well as of any future clinical trials of other product candidates and other research and development activities that we may conduct, including any unforeseen costs we may incur as a result of clinical trial delays due to the COVID-19 pandemic;

 

the actual probability of success for our product candidates, including their safety and efficacy, early clinical data, competition, manufacturing capability, and commercial viability;

 

significant and changing government regulation and regulatory guidance;

 

the timing and receipt of any marketing approvals;

 

the progress of the development efforts of parties with whom we may enter into collaboration agreements;

 

our ability to secure manufacturing supply through relationships with third parties;

 

the commercialization of our product candidates, if and when approved

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the expense of filing, prosecuting, defending and enforcing any patent claims and other intellectual property rights; and

 

the impact of COVID-19 on our ongoing phase 2a trial and our Phase 1b clinical trial of FX-322 in severe SNHL.

A change in the outcome of any of these variables with respect to the development of a product candidate could mean a significant change in the costs and timing associated with the development of that product candidate.

General and administrative expenses

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and other related costs, including stock-based compensation, for personnel in our executive, finance, business development, and administrative functions. General and administrative expenses also include legal fees relating to intellectual property and corporate matters; professional fees for accounting, auditing, tax and consulting services; insurance costs; travel expenses; and facility-related expenses, which include direct depreciation costs and expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities, and other operating costs that are not specifically attributable to research and development activities.

We expect that our general and administrative expenses will increase in the future as we increase our personnel headcount to support our continued research activities and development of product candidates. In addition, we expect to continue to incur increased expenses associated with being a public company, including costs of accounting, audit, legal, regulatory, and tax-related services associated with maintaining compliance with the requirements of The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC and the SEC; director and officer insurance costs; and investor and public relations costs.

Interest income

Interest income consists of interest earned on cash equivalents and short-term investments.

Interest (expense)

Interest expense consists of interest paid on the term loan.

Realized (loss) gain on investments

Realized loss on investments represents the loss realized on our marketable securities.

Foreign exchange gain

Foreign exchange gain represents the gain recorded as a result of remeasuring the financial statements of our foreign subsidiaries.

Income taxes

Our total provision is based on the United States statutory rate of 21%, increased by state taxes and reduced by a full valuation allowance on our deferred tax assets. The income tax expense for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 represents state taxes on interest income earned by our subsidiary, Frequency Therapeutics Securities Corporation, a Massachusetts Securities Corporation.

ASC 740 requires a valuation allowance to reduce the deferred tax assets reported if, based on the weight of the evidence, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. After consideration of all the evidence, both positive and negative, we have recorded a valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets at December 31, 2020 because we have determined that it is more likely than not that we will not recognize the benefits of our federal and state deferred tax assets primarily due to our cumulative loss position and, as a result, a valuation allowance has been established.

Since our inception in 2014, we have generated cumulative federal and state net operating loss and research and development credit carryforwards for which we have not recorded any net tax benefit due to uncertainty around utilizing these tax attributes within their respective carryforward periods.

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Results of operations

Comparison of three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

March 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

Increase

(Decrease)

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Revenue

 

$

4,651

 

 

$

7,264

 

 

$

(2,613